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About Wildflowers

Clerodendrum uncinatum

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (Milkweed, formally: Asclepias fruticosa)               Family: Apocynaceae A small shrub with sparse foliage. Adventitious roots. Leaves are lancelet and exude a milky latex. The flowers are creamy-yellow and the fruit a balloon shape covered with hairs and, when ripe, the fluffy seeds are dispersed by the wind. The African monarch butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) lays its eggs on the underside of …

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About Aquatic Plants

Yellow Ottelia - Ottelia ulvifolia

Utricularia gibba (Bladderwort)               Family: Lentibulariaceae This is an aquatic, carnivorous herb. The roots are sometimes free floating. The long, grass-like leaves grow on the water surface. Flowers are golden-yellow and flower year round. The roots have bladders that trap small insects. The bladders are under negative pressure and prey, brushing past the roots, set off the trapdoors sucking the animal into …

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About Trees

Umbrella Thorn - Acacia tortillis

Common Trees In Botswana As a guide it is important to have a good knowledge of the plants in your area of operation as well as their taxonomic classification from family to species. Combretum imberbe (Leadwood)               Family: Combretaceae. Tall, upright tree with a rounded crown; bark is pale grey and splits into longitudinal strips on older trunks. It has a deep …

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About Tortoises

Leopard Tortoise

Common features of the Chelonians The most prominent feature is that they all have an outer shell, consisting of the upper carapace and the lower plastron. They have an internal skeleton contained within the shell. The order Chelonia consists of two sub-orders, which can be distinguished by the way the head and neck are withdrawn into the shell.  In both …

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About Ecology

Ecology is the study of interactions between organism and their relationship to their surroundings and the processes taking place during the interactions Ecology is a Greek word which, literally translated, means “the study of the house” referring to the study of our earth. The term “ecology” was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel . Modern ecology transformed into a …

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About Dragonflies


Distinguished from Neuroptera family by having thin, short antennae; their wings are held in a roof like manner whereas dragonflies hold their wings horizontally, much like an aeroplane, and damselflies hold their wings vertically above their body. Odonata use their legs like a basket to capture prey and capture prey in flight and hunt over water. The Mating method is …

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About Chameleons

Flap-necked Chameleon

Physical Features Like the snakes, they have no external ear openings and their hearing is poor. Their bodies are laterally compressed. Their skins are rough with small scales that do not overlap. Adaptations They have zygodactyl foot structure. This is an adaptation for an arboreal lifestyle. They cannot shed the prehensile tail. Chameleons have hollow tongues which they retract onto …

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Normal Intestinal Flora Of Wild Nile Crocodiles In The Okavango Delta, Botswana


Normal Intestinal Flora Of Wild Nile Crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) In The Okavango Delta, Botswana Owing to the difficulty in obtaining biological specimens from wild crocodilians, very little is known about their normal intestinal flora. The intestinal tract flora isolated from wild-caught African dwarf crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis) has been reported. Salmonellae isolated from wild Nile crocodiles from Lake Kariba, and from …

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Gastric Nematodes Of Nile Crocodiles In The Okavango River Botswana


Gastric Nematodes Of Nile Crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, In The Okavango River, Botswana A number of gastrointestinal nematodes from crocodilian hosts have been reported in the literature (Baker 1983). Amongst these the ascaridoid nematodes belonging to the subfamily Heterocheilinae and Anisakinae are some of the most prominent species (Sprent 1977, 1978, 1979a, b). Eight of the 11 genera are …

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Estimating Demographics Of The Nile Crocodile In The Panhandle Region Of The Okavango Delta, Botswana


Estimating Demographics Of The Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti) In The Panhandle Region Of The Okavango Delta, Botswana The effective conservation and management of world crocodilians often involves a range of management interventions (for example, strict protection to harvesting), depending on the status of the species, their habitats and the national context within which crocodilians and people interact. The ability …

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