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Impala
Impala

Impala

Subfamily Aepycerotinae,  Aepyceros melampus
Impala are water dependent but can go without water for extended periods if there is green graze or browse. They are intermediate feeders preferring grass when it is fresh. When the crude protein in the grass gets low, they will switch to browse.
Impala are a favourite food source of wild dog, cheetah and leopard and also killed regularly by lion and hyaena. Caracal and python are also known to take impala. Their main defence is excellent senses and running speed. Unconfirmed records quote speeds of over 90km/hr
Rams are territorial during the rutting season (around April) and will do their best to keep herds of females within the boundaries of his territory for as long as he can. He expends a huge amount of energy chasing off other males, herding uncooperative females back into the area and mating.  It is physically impossible for a male impala to sustain this for the full 3 weeks of the main rut and therefore the herd ewes will be covered by the 3 or 4 strongest males of the area. Males that are incapable of holding territory form bachelor herds. Throughout the remainder of the year the herd structure breaks down and the harem becomes a mixed herd.
The fawns are dropped in a pulse-birth in November. The females often do not hide the fawns but if they do it is for a very short period (1-3 days). They form nursery herds and the impala herds are relentlessly attacked by every predator in the region for the short period when the young are vulnerable. They wean by 6 months and young rams are evicted before they are 2. Ewes will stay within the herd. Impala will live about 12 years in the wild.
Vocalizations: Impala have an alarm snorts and rutting males make a roaring sound interspersed with snorts.